Report of 3 Day program on Lean Six Sigma Green Belt held at ITM B-School (Operations & SCM Department)
Objective:Basic general outline of Six sigma green belt certification course includes: Statistical and other analytical methods for identifying and understanding, sources of variation, History of Six Sigma, Basic statistics and displays of data, Process mapping and measurement techniques, Six Sigma tools and techniques, DMAIC process improvement roadmap, how to establish customer requirements, how to measure and quantify process performance.
Facilitator:Director of CSense Management Solutions Pvt Ltd and Black belt in Six Sigma Mr. Kannan has one mission that partnering with organisations in maximising profits and attaining perpetuity through improving their strategies, people, processes, and workspace through Lean, Six Sigma, and Kaizen Principles. He also supports clients to improve their bottom line by 1% a year without capital expenses and ensure at least 10 times ROI for engagement.
Summary:Six Sigma pizza story as a case study. The background, the pressing need for improvement was well appreciated by the students. Built the samples and data for analysis around the storyline, and it made a much deeper sense of wholeness to the program.
Introduction:First day of the workshop and there was great positivity in student as well as teachers to learn something new. Session start with basic orientation of program; Like What is business, History of Quality evolution, Journey of excellence in Business.
Six Sigma Approach:
MeasureRule of 6σ: “Don’t do all processes, do whatever you master of.” And Hit the target while reducing variation.Y=f(X) where Y=Project problem, X= Factors that affects project.
Define Phase:In this phase problem identification and definition with its roadmap had been done. Customer pain can be solved by making VoC(Voice of Customer) and converting it into CtQ(Critical to Quality) to find Project Y. Business pain can be solved by finding problem area and converting it into RTY(Rolled throughput yield) to make Project Y.Kano Model= Marketing model for customer requirement and focussing on useful features. Three categories such as ; Must be requirement, One dimensional, Delighters.
Voice of Design(expected range)= Upper specification limit- Lower specification limitVoice of Process(collection of data)= Upper control limit- Lower control limit
Measure Phase:Data collection can be quantitative or qualitative. Usefulness of statistics, population and sample for applying tools, sampling methods, Central location of data (Mean, Median, Mode, Percentile, Quartile) and Variability (Range, Variance, Standard Deviation, IQR) are part of the properties of data. There have been also exercise done on Minitab to get all of these in Software as output.
Time series= Values posted upon period graphically. It is simple systematic sampling method. This can also achieve on Minitab under Stat section.I Chart= Check process is in control or not. Data should be in boundaries for the stability. This can also get in Minitab under stat-control chart.Normality= This test used to determine if a data set is well modeled by a normal distribution and to compute how likely it is for random variable underlying the data set to be normally distributed.
Some Data analysis tools= Histogram, Pareto chart, Box plot (Usually done on software)Process capability= Outcome for Measure phase. Can be achieved by (Voice of Design)÷(Voice of Process). Usually denoted as Cp.
Lean Thinking:Lean as a process improvement tool is continuously improving productivity by eliminating wasteful activities in a process. There are 5 stages of lean approach. Cycle time, Throughput time, manufacturing lead time, EOQ, MOQ, Inventory cost, Setup time and cost are jargons used in lean.House of lean= understand the order in which lean should be implemented.
Kanban= Customer demand pool dataHeijunka= Production at consistent rateJIT= minimize inventory with flexibility in productionPoka yoke= Mistake proofing in process5 Whys= Until root cause found of the problemJidoka= Automation with human touch
Analyse Phase:It starts with simple question with Why process capability poor? First thing to do here is Brainstorming then FMEA(Failure mode and evaluation analysis) to Validation of root cause.Hypothesis= Statement about a population parameter subject to verification. Two hypothesis; Null and Alternative.
P value= How the model can accept that amount of error which is decision factor.
All of this test can be done on Minitab under stat-basic statistics tab.
Regression Analysis= A linear relationship simply means that a change of a given size in x produces a proportionate change in y. Relation ship can be derived as strong positive, strong negative, moderate positive, moderate negative correlation. R-Squared is strength of the model that means how x&y varies from each other.
Improve Phase:Finding solution to the validated root cause and arriving to action plan. SMED( Single minute exchange of dies), 5S, Poka-Yoke are useful tools to get action plan.
Control Phase:Sustain gains through control plan continually improve through subsequent waves. It can be done by Standard operational procedure, Monitoring mechanism for Y, KPI Monitoring.